Red Hat Bugzilla – Bug 143374
netfilter NAT/masquerade/SNAT with 2.6 IPSEC broken
Last modified: 2007-11-30 17:10:57 EST
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Description of problem:
The current kernel netfilter code is broken when you try to use
NAT/masquerade on a 2.6 IPSEC connection. I'm talking "setkey" IPSEC
here, not *SWAN.
The problem is IPSEC encapsulation occurs before the original packet
can traverse POSTROUTING, meaning that SNAT/MASQ translation will
This is issue already has a patch (in netfilter's patch-o-matic) and
has been well discussed on the netfilter-devel mailing list. The
patch allows packets to correctly traverse POSTROUTING before
It would be nice to see this patch in a kernel errata since any
attempt to use NAT with 2.6 IPSEC will fail without any obvious hints
as to the solution or problem. People converting from *SWAN to the
native 2.6 ipsec will expect this to work and will be very confused,
like I was!
the big original important discussion:
Version-Release number of selected component (if applicable):
Steps to Reproduce:
1. setup 2.6 ipsec with setkey (or use system-config-network)
2. setup a MASQ rule in iptables that NAT's internal subnet hosts to
the destination which is to be IPSEC'd
Actual Results: Expected MASQ packets are lost/dropped/do weird
things because they don't ever get MASQ'd.
Expected Results: MASQ/NAT should work and packets get NAT'd then
passed to ISPEC for encapsulation.
The patches in netfilter patch-o-matic are not up to date and don't
work with the 2.6.9 kernel. The author(s) already have new
2.6.9-compatible patches which they will email on request. I suppose
someone could attach them here if desired. I'm not sure on the
etiquette so I won't do it yet, but I do have copies of the patches if
someone wants them.
I can report that the new patches go into the FC3 2.6.9-1.681_FC3
kernel source rpm's without a hitch. Everything compiles perfectly
and I have tested the new (fixed) ipsec/nat functionality on 3 boxes
and it works perfectly exactly as it should.
It's going on 2 production boxes tomorrow and I will report back if
there are any problems in a heavily loaded production environment.
Since the tests were all flawless I'm not expecting any problems.
Status update: It's been 1 week with the patched kernel on 3
production boxes doing constant ipsec traffic and zero problems.
If the patches need posting here then just let me know and I'll put
them up after confirming it's ok with the author.
Please post the patch. Or a link to the patch. I'd like to get
IPSEC+NAT working and have been unable to do so. Thanks for doing the
work to track down the problem!
I appear to have found the patches on the netfilter-devel list. Since
they are publically available at this point through a little searching
I'll just post a link to them:
They are actually .tar.gz, but the list software renamed them. They
appear to apply properly to the stock kernel-2.6.9-1.681_FC3 .src.rpm.
I had the same problem with IPSec+NAT and have been running
2.6.9-1.681_FC + The 2.6.9 IPSec+NAT patches from the netfilter devel
I just tried to upgrade to 2.6.10-1.737_FC3 to fix the uselib
vulnerability, but the patches don't seem to apply cleanly to the new
Darn, I was afraid of that. So we're stuck at .681 for now. We must
press the netfilter guys to get this in the mainstream kernel asap!
An updated patch (for 2.6.10) has been posted to the netfilter-devel
Ignore the .obj extension it's a plain text diff.
It applies cleanly to 2.6.10-1.737, But building on FC3 (with gcc
version 3.4.2 20041017) Fails with the following errors:
net/ipv4/ip_output.c: In function `ip_build_and_send_pkt':
net/ipv4/ip_output.c:130: sorry, unimplemented: inlining failed in
call to 'ip_dst_output': function body not available
net/ipv4/ip_output.c:253: sorry, unimplemented: called from here
make: *** [net/ipv4/ip_output.o] Error 1
make: *** [net/ipv4] Error 2
make: *** [net] Error 2
It seems to build fine on FC2 (gcc version 3.3.3 20040412) though.
I haven't tested the rebuilt kernel yet though.
inlining failures are trivial to fix, find the function its
complaining about, and move it to above the function that calls it.
Created attachment 109808 [details]
Fix inline function compile errors for IPSec+NAT patch
The attached patch fixes the inlining error with the 2.6.10 IPSec+NAT patch
from netfilter-devel, apply it after the netfilter-devel patch.
I've rebuilt the 2.6.10-1.741_FC3 kernel rpm with the netfilter-devel patch and
the attached inlining fix, my modified RPM & SRPM are available at
http://www.noggin.com.au/rpms/kernel/ if anyone wants to use them.
I've tested that it boots, but I can't reboot my firewall just now, so I
haven't tested the actual IPSec+NAT functionality yet.
After testing I found that the 2.6.10 patch from netfilter-devel
doesn't seem to work for me, but this set (posted to netfilter-devel
by Robert Dahlem) does.
The inline patch is still needed to compile cleanly on FC3, and
applies cleanly after this set of patches.
The .tar.obj is actually a .tgz
I have also updated my RPMS (http://www.noggin.com.au/rpms/kernel)
with the new patches and they seem to be working fine on my firewall
Has the Dahlem patch been stable on your system since your last report? I'm
about to recompile the latest 766 kernel with this patch to have a go and would
like some confirmation of suitability before I move it to semi-production.
To update my own record from before, my patched 681 (see previous notes) has
worked 100% on 3 production boxes for 2 months now. We'll see how the latest
2.6.10-compatible patches work out.
I'm still crossing my fingers for "real" kernel integration of these patches and
thus into FC3. Does anyone know HOW I'd know when this occurs? Any chance of
it getting in FC4?
I haven't had any problems with 741 + the patch Robert Dahlem posted
to netfilter-devel (See comment #10) I've been running it on my
primary firewall for around 45 days now.
I seem to recall reading somewhere in the netfilter archives that the
fix was expected to be merged for the 2.6.11 kernel release, but I
don't see anything in the 2.6.11 changelog.
Yes, it looks ok. I compiled it and am running it on 4 production
boxes with good success so far.
Anyone dealing with this issue is likely to face bug 145507, 145773
and friends as well when they switch to 2.6.10+
Does anyone know if this bug is fixed in the recent 2.6.11 FC3 kernel release?
How would I find out?
Doesn't look like it. It doesn't seem like the fix has made it into the
mainline kernel yet, because a patch for 2.6.11 has been posted to the
and there doesn't seem to be any references to IPSec, NAT or netfilter patches
the 2.6.11-1.14 kernel rpm spec file
The fix isn't going into the mainline kernel because, as discussed
on firstname.lastname@example.org, there are many problems with the approach
taken by those patches.
It is very unwise for us to put these patches into the tree, as the
upstream version of this fix will be very different, and the patch
being discussed is not even being maintained actively by it's original
author any longer.
I know this is a huge pain for people, but there simply isn't a good
netfilter solution for IPSEC in the 2.6.x kernel yet. People just need
to be patient while a correct solution is worked out.
For those that are stuck, you may want to try using GRE tunnels within IPSEC
transport. It isn't a perfect fix for this issue, but has allowed me to work
around the issue I was having. It also allows NAT to work within the tunnel.
I hope this helps!
Comment #16: Do you have specific links or message-id's from email@example.com
or search terms I could use? I tried to find the discussions but all I found
was a handful of messages from Jan 2004 about this problem specifically.
So the stumbling block is an architectural issue, not a practical or conceptual
issue? It makes 100% sense to me that you can slap ipsec on a connection (or
take it out) and have that connection have 100% the same behaviour as before
except with encryption. It makes no sense to me that it should be any other way.
What version of the kernel will we have to wait for to see a fix for this?
Hopefully not 5 years from now.
Comment #17: Would your suggestion entail rewriting all the iptables NAT rules
and ipsec forwarding rules that I have set up, or would it be a transparent
drop-in to make NAT over ipsec work? I am loathe to rewrite my insanely complex
rule set again -- I once had a working free-swan setup and spent days converting
1000 rules to the new 2.6 native ipsec. The interface way of doing it was nice
and simple but free-swan was so finicky and prone to network lockout upon any
Native ipsec holds so much promise -- the idea is so clean! -- if only NAT would
work with it!!!
Looks like in the meantime I'll be hacking in whatever patches I can find and
maintaining my own kernel (ugh).
If anyone else sees this and is in my boat, please email me and let's pool
resources to try to keep our kernels up to date with the FC errata releases and
Update: I have successfully patched the latest kernel-2.6.12-1.1372_FC3 kernel
with the netfilter PoM patches related to ipsec+nat. It actually isn't that
hard, send email if you need help. I have deployed the patched kernel to 2 test
boxes that are ipsec+nat'd and so far everything works 100% perfect! Initial
ipsec+nat tests with VNC & ssh are working great.
So this is a viable option for us ipsec+nat'ers that want to use the latest
kernel. Hopefully some long-term mainstream-kernel solution will be found soon.
Are those patches "the old patches" or "the new patches"? "The old patches"
have been abondoned some time ago, they are not maintained anymore, and will
never become part of the official upstream kernel (they've been rejected by
kernel maintainers long time ago). There's some folks that are attempting to
keep them alive, but nothing official. "The new patches" have been activly
developed, but they are not simple and require major kernel surgery. I've also
got reply on Netfilter developer mailing list that they are working night and
day on new set of patches, but the solution is very complex and hard to implement.
See also bug #165359. According to David Miller, the bug (most likely) will
never be fixed in RHEL4, since the changes might simply be too big (breaking
compatibility with 3rd party binary-only device drivers). Fedora Core, with its
more volatile nature is probably going to have better luck, and will probably
get patched kernels much sooner (if not as a patch for FC4, then probably in the
first major release after the problem is fixed in upstream kernel). It might be
possible to run patched kernels on RHEL4 (from Fedora Core for example), unless
you need to have 3rd party device drivers (that work with RHEL4 kernels only).
Also, as some people suggested, GRE tunnels as workaround work just fine. I've
made several setups like that. Setting up GRE tunnel is extremely simple (much
simpler then IPSec tunneling). Then you simply setup IPSec only between tunnel
endpoints. Theoretically, all you need is IPSec transport mode (since GRE is
taking care of tunneling). However, the bug disscussed here also affects
transport mode and makes it unusable in combination with Netfilter. So you need
workaround number two, and "emulate" transport mode using tunnel mode.
For example, you want to tunnel between 10.1.0.0/16 and 10.2.0.0/16 over public
network. I'll give configuration on one side, the other side is mirrored.
Replace string "some_name" with whatever you want tunnel device to be called
(say the other end is in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, you might choose to call it
# modprobe ip_gre
# ip tunnel add some_name mode gre local 188.8.131.52 remote 184.108.40.206 ttl 255
# ip link set some_name up
# ip addr add 10.255.255.1 peer 10.255.255.2 dev some_name
# ip route add 10.2.0.0/16 via 10.255.255.2
This gives you cleartext tunnel. You use standard routing to get things into
the tunnel (as shown in last command).
Theoretically, we could add encryption by defining IPSec policy like this (don't
try it, it works on its own, but not in combination with Netfilter):
# setkey -c <<EOF
spdadd 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 any -P out ipsec esp/transport//require;
spdadd 22.214.171.124 126.96.36.199 any -P in ipsec esp/transport//require;
However, because of bug discussed here (and in 165359), this isn't going to play
nicely with Netfilter. So, instead of the above, one would use workaround #2
and define IPSec policy like this:
# setkey -c <<EOF
spdadd 188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 any -P out ipsec
spdadd 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 any -P in ipsec
Tunnel mode defined that way gives exactly the same functionality as transport
mode (with small encapsulation overhead).
Note that the above defines policy that enforces encryption only between 22.214.171.124
and 126.96.36.199. Encryption is not enforced between local networks by using IPSec
policy! But since tunneled packets are encapsulated, they will get encrypted.
Also, to get things into the tunnel, you don't use IPSec policy anymore. You
simply route into the tunnel. You even have network device (called "some_name"
in above examples) that you can use for both routing and writing Netfilter
firewall rules (for outgoing packet, you'll first see it on device "some_name"
and then you'll see GRE packet on eth0 (or ppp0, or whatever is your external
interface)). Much like userland VPN solutions that use tun* devices. I kind of
like this approach more, since by simply typing "ip route show" I know exactly
where the packets are going to end (there's no hidden, behind the scenes implied
IPSec routing that doesn't show anywhere in routing tables, and which is
sometimes pain the but to get play nicely whith existing real routes).
Now, the problem is, the above workarounds work nicely between two Linux boxes.
They should also work between Linux box and anything else that supports both
GRE and IPSec (or they might not). It isn't going to work between Linux box and
those small Linksys VPN boxes (since they do only IPSec). It might work between
Linux box and real Cisco router (I had no means of testing that).
Interesting GRE setup ideas there, Alex. Unfortunately, the pain for me to
convert all my iptables rules (1000+) back to a virtual interface paradigm is
much greater than simply maintaining my own patched kernel for while until a fix
is in the mainstream kernel. I'm only using FC (not RHEL) so I can easily
migrate to new kernels as they appear.
The patches I'm using successfully (now with 1376) are almost certainly the
"old" ones, as the code looks much like it did when I used the older 2.6.10
patches. I got them straight from the PoM set on the netfilter sites.
I am heartened to hear that the teams are actively working on this to get it in
I'm posting these updates mostly for the people who need this functionality NOW
and want some options; so they know it is doable.