Reproduction is super easy: download https://kojipkgs.fedoraproject.org/compose/rawhide/Fedora-Rawhide-20160914.n.0/compose/Server/x86_64/iso/Fedora-Server-netinst-x86_64-Rawhide-20160914.n.0.iso , do a completely stock install with it, then boot to rescue mode and select 1) Continue . It will report "You don't have any Linux partitions. The system will reboot automatically when you exit from the shell."
This does not happen with the 20160912.n.0 Fedora 25 nightly (most recent successful compose), it's Rawhide-only.
A dbus warning shows up which does not show up in F25, I dunno if it's related, though:
(process: 1372): GLib-GIO-CRITICAL **: g_dbus_connection_call_sync_internal: assertion 'object_path != NULL && g_variant_is_object_path (object_path)' failed
The new openQA rescue mode test caught this - it tests with an encrypted install, but I tested manually with a non-encrypted install and it's also affected.
Proposing as an F26 Beta blocker: "The rescue mode of the installer must start successfully and be able to detect and mount any installation performed according to the applicable criteria, and provide a shell with access to utilities capable of performing typical recovery operations." If this shows up in F25 later, it'll be an F25 blocker.
This is still valid as of 2016-12-05, see e.g.:
(the openQA test tests with an encrypted install, but it's the same bug).
I have tested it with the latest rawhide (https://kojipkgs.fedoraproject.org/compose/rawhide/latest-Fedora-Rawhide/compose/Server/x86_64/iso/Fedora-Server-netinst-x86_64-Rawhide-20170104.n.0.iso) and it seems to work correctly.
Does the test still fail?
Lately it's failing intermittently:
try it a few times?
Discussed during the 2017-01-09 blocker review meeting: 
The decision to delay the classification of this as a bug was made as the recent findings on this bug have changed since it was first submitted, so time for manual testing is being made before a classification is made.
This problem is also present on pppc64 and ppc64le rawhide iso.
I tried several times (5) with Fedora-Server-dvd-ppc64le-Rawhide-20170125.n.0.iso without any success.
Discussed during the 2017-02-13 blocker review meeting: 
The decision was made to classify this bug as an AcceptedBlocker as it violates the following Beta criteria:
"The rescue mode of the installer must start successfully and be able to detect and mount any installation performed according to the applicable criteria, and provide a shell with access to utilities capable of performing typical recovery operations."
Fixed in a pull request: https://github.com/rhinstaller/anaconda/pull/960
This bug appears to have been reported against 'rawhide' during the Fedora 26 development cycle.
Changing version to '26'.
Any timeframe for 26.22 to actually happen?
Should be already fixed - in the end there was no 26.22 as we branched in 26.21 - so 26.21.1 should have the fix.
Indeed it doesn't look like this particular failure has occurred since the start of March (the test has occasionally failed, but none of the failures look like this - they're just openQA blips, timeouts or typing errors).
So this was actually fixed in Alpha, no need for common bugs.