Cause: Upgrading directory server.
Consequence: See error messages like this in the errors log:
ldif2dbm - _get_and_add_parent_rdns: Failed to convert DN cn=TESTRELM.COM to RDN
Fix: Make sure upgrade does not start up the server until it has finished doing setup-ds.pl -u with the server off, to properly upgrade the database.
Result: Upgrades do not cause any error messages after starting the server.